Multi-access key to the Eucalypts of Victoria

Introduction

The multi-access key to the Eucalypts of Victoria is a key to one of Victoria’s most conspicuous and widespread plant groups and contains all 163 Eucalypt taxa (genera Eucalyptus, Corymbia and Angophora) that are known to occur in Victoria, both native and naturalised. It is based on the previously published EUCLID key to all Australian eucalypts produced by the Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Canberra. It contains 81 characters to help distinguish taxa from each other with, including place and environment of occurrence, stature and growth form, and several morphological features both vegetative and reproductive. It differs from other (dichotomous) keys provided in VicFlora by giving the user the flexibility to choose from one of the 81 characters provided rather than the user having to commit to investigate the particular features being questioned in the dichotomous keys. This has the benefit of:

  1. avoiding having to answer questions relating to a feature that may not be present in the sample when being identified,

  2. potentially being able to identify a taxon without needing to comprehend the most technical terminology and

  3. allowing the rapid identification of taxa with distinct features rarely encountered among the eucalypts of Victoria

To use the key the user selects a feature from the features in the top left Features Available panel and clicks on the state present in their specimen to be identified. Once selected this feature and state will show as being selected in the Features Chosen panel directly below the Features Available panel. To undo a selection, click on the box next to the state chosen in the Features Chosen panel to erase the tick in the box. Once a feature state is chosen all the taxa that do not possess the chosen feature state are discarded in the bottom right Entities Discarded panel and those that do possess the chosen feature state are retained in the top right Entities Remaining panel. The user continues to choose further character states present in their specimen until identification is achieved. To restart the key when finished select the restart key icon represented by the two green arrows in the top left corner of the screen.

Go to Key Player

General helpful hints

For the most effective use of this key the user is encouraged to read the help guides for each character and state before submitting an answer for that character and state. Help guides and photographs can be found for most characters and states by clicking on the page icons beside characters and states. This help will reduce the chance of misinterpretation of the character and state. Some Information and definitions required for interpreting a state may be given under character so users are encouraged to read the help guide for the characters before the states. When taking measurements or assessing which state a character exists in for the taxon being identified a typical plant and plant part should be used. Typical is here interpreted as a close representation of the average plant in terms of size and stature in a population and a plant part that represents the average condition for that character (e.g. average length, the most frequently observed shape etc.). Most characters provided concern the adult plant and consequently when using these characters the plant chosen should be reproductively mature. The exception is for characters that explicitly state that they refer to seedling or juvenile plants. For some of the characters it is possible for some taxa to possess more than one character state for the character. In such cases either correct character state can be chosen. When taking measurements be precise e.g. if a fruit is 4.9 mm long enter 4.9 mm long rather than rounding up to 5 mm and entering that.

To help identify the specimen to be identified as quickly as possible the best option can be used. This option highlights which characters should be used first to discard the maximum number of taxa among the remaining taxa. To use the best option select the best icon given as a blue wand at the top of the screen. For some similar taxa such as closely related species or subspecies within a species it may become time consuming to keep using the key until one taxon remains. In such instances the user can use the dichotomous key and profiles to help distinguish between the remaining similar species.

Occurrence

This set of four characters refer to where a eucalypt naturally occurs or has become naturalised in.

Distribution by Natural Region

Victoria has been divided into 16 natural regions (however, Murray Mallee and Lowan Mallee are combined in this key). For this character the user determines which natural region the eucalypt that is to be identified was found in to enter for this character. Whether a taxon is regarded as occurring in a particular natural region or not is dependent on whether the taxon has been previously documented as occurring in that natural region or not. There is a remote possible that a taxon occurs in a natural region but has not yet been documented in that natural region. In such a case the key will not recognise that taxon as occurring in that natural region which will result in a misidentification for the user. This issue may be particularly relevant to newly introduced species which may be still expanding their range through Victoria or for taxa that are undercollected in herbaria. Due to these issues we suggest that this character be one of the first characters investigated as a potential reason for misidentification.

Landform

This character divides Victoria into five broad landform states.

  • Coastal plains, coastal low hills and headlands or coastal dunes

Eucalypts from coastal sites will match this state.

  • Inland plains, inland low hills or inland dunes (includes deserts)

Eucalypts from the low relief north of the Great Dividing Range will match this state.

  • Tablelands

Regions away from the coast near mountains or hills but of undulating or reasonably flat terrain (e.g. elevated areas in Central Victoria) and clearly not a hill or a valley match this state.

  • Hills or ridges or mountain tops

This state matches the higher elevated regions of Victoria (e.g. the Alps) as well as high points with reasonable elevation (i.e. rising over 100 metres above the surrounding area).

  • Valley bottoms or flats

This site matches low areas between hills or ridges created by a watercourse.

Water habitats

This character includes four well-known examples of habitats closely associated with water that eucalypts occupy. Some eucalypts e.g. mallee species, may not typically occur in a habitat closely associated with water. In these cases none of the possible states will match the eucalypt being identified and consequently none of the states should be selected for such a eucalypt.

  • On riverbanks or terraces

  • Associated with fresh-water swamps, lakes, depressions

  • Associated with salt-water swamps, lakes, depressions (wet or dry)

  • On floodplains

Soil type

This character divides Victoria into three broad soil states.

  • Sand (desert or coastal dune, or sandplain or river sands)

This state refers to well drained soils that do not easily form aggregates when wetted and are not mouldable.

  • Loam, clay or gravel (sandy loam, sandy clay or rocky or gravelly)

This state refers to soils composed mostly of fine particles that at least when wetted can form a mouldable aggregate or soils that have rocks or stones beneath and usually on the soil surface.

  • Black cracking clay

This state refers to black clay soils that at some time of the year shrinks when it dries to form deep cracks that are at least 5 mm wide.

Plant

This set of two characters refers to the general stature of the plant.

Height: m#

This character requires the user to measure in metres the height of the tree from the soil at the base of the trunk to the top of the highest leaves.

Habit

This is the general growth form of the plant and includes two states.

  • Tree

This state refers to plants that have a single stem (trunk).

  • Mallee or shrub

This state refers to plants that have more than one stem at ground level and are generally less than 10 metres tall.

Bark

This set of seven characters refer to the texture, form or colour of the outer layers of the stem or trunk.

Bark persistence or type (on trunk or stem)

This character refers to the extent that old and dead bark is persistent on the trunk or stem of a plant and includes three states.

  • Wholly smooth

In this state old and dead back is completely shed from the trunk and stems annually exposing a smooth fresh bark. Smooth bark can be felt without getting splinters.

  • Partly rough (incl. partly-decorticated curls over whole trunk)

In this state at least some of the old and dead bark is shed annually so that the lower parts of the trunk remains with old rough bark and the rest of the trunk or stem has the smooth fresh bark showing. Stroking rough bark is likely to result in getting splinters.

  • Wholly rough

In this state all the old and dead bark is retained on the trunk and stems resulting in a rough trunk or stem. Stroking rough bark is likely to result in getting splinters.

Smooth bark colour (trunk or larger branches)

This character refers to the colour that newly exposed smooth bark appears as and includes nine states. This character is not applicable to eucalypts with wholly rough bark (see bark persistence character).

  • White

  • Cream

  • Yellow

  • Pink (or reddish)

  • Orange

  • Coppery

  • Brown

  • Green (olive green, bronze)

  • Grey

Scribbles (on smooth bark)

This character refers to the presence of darker scribbles on the lighter smooth bark caused by insect larvae and includes two states.

  • Scribbles present

In this state scribbles caused by insect larvae are present on the smooth bark.

  • Scribbles absent

In this state scribbles caused by insect larvae are absent on the smooth bark.

Ribbons (of bark in the upper branches)

This character refers to whether old and dead bark in the upper branches is shed in the form of thin ribbons and includes two states.

  • Ribbons present

In this state the old and dead bark in the upper branches is shed in the form of thin ribbons.

  • Ribbons absent

In this state the old and dead bark in the upper branches is not shed in the form of thin ribbons.

Rough bark type

This character refers to the texture and form of the old and dead bark that remains persistent for years on the trunks of plants. This bark feels rough rather than feeling more or less smooth like in bark that is annually refreshed in the smooth barked taxa. This character includes seven states. This character is not applicable to eucalypts with wholly smooth bark (see bark persistence character).

  • Ironbark

This form of rough bark is hard, deeply and widely furrowed and tends to be dark in colour, often black or dark brown or grey. There are only three taxa that possess this distinctive rough bark type in Victoria: Eucalyptus sideroxylon subsp. sideroxylon, E. tricarpa subsp. decora and E. tricarpa subsp. tricarpa.

  • Tessellated (includes bloodwoods and some boxes)

This form of rough bark is composed of short fibres which breaks up into plates.

  • Stringy or fibrous

This form of rough bark is long-fibred and can be removed from the trunk in strings or strips. These strips can be spongy. On the trunk the bark has longitudinal lines and furrows.

  • Box (incl. crumbly, thick & flaky)

This form of rough bark, common among the box eucalypts, is composed of short fibres that cannot be removed from the trunk in long strips. On the trunk it has narrow longitudinal fissures and appears thin.

  • Imperfectly shed ribbons, strips or curls

This form of rough bark is composed of ribbons, strips or curls that are not completely shed from the trunk but instead remain partly attached often with the shed portion curling away from the trunk.

  • Compacted

This form of rough bark is hard and dense making it hard to remove form the trunk.

  • Loose basal slabs

This form of rough bark is shed from the base of a trunk in irregular sized and shaped blocks.

Rough bark colour

This character refers to the colour of the old and dead bark that is retained for years on the trunks of some taxa and includes 8 states.

  • Grey

  • Brown

  • Reddish or pinkish

  • Black

  • Yellow

  • Mottled with grey and white patches

  • Orange

  • White

Branches

This set of two characters refer to the smaller stems among the canopy.

Branch bark (on canopy branches more than ca. 8 cm diam.)

This character refers to the persistence of old and dead bark on canopy branches that ae more than 8 centimetres in diameter and includes two states.

  • Smooth

In this state old and dead bark is shed annually from the branches of the canopy that are more than 8 centimetres in diameter exposing a smoother and often lighter bark.

  • Rough

In this state old and dead bark is retained in the branches of the canopy that are more than 8 centimetres in diameter making these branches rough to touch. Stroking rough bark is likely to result in getting splinters.

Branchlet glaucescence (on second or third year growth)

This character refers to the presence of a white powder on the second and third year growth and includes two states.

  • Branchlet white with wax (glaucous)

In this state the second and third year growth is covered by a wax giving this growth a white appearance.

  • Branchlet without wax (not glaucous)

In this state the second and third year growth is not covered by a wax and are not white.

Pith oil glands in branchlets

This character refers to the presence of glands in the centre of stems and includes two states.

  • Pith glands present

In this state pith glands are present in the centre of stems. These can be detected as an aggregation or line of dark brown spots if the stem is split down its length revealing the stem centre.

  • Pith glands absent

In this state pith glands are absent in the centre of stems. To confirm the absence of pith glands no aggregation or line of dark brown spots will be observed if the stem is split down its length revealing the stem centre.

Leaf

This group of 16 characters refers to the main photosynthetic and green organ (leaf) of the plant.

Leaf position on branches in mature crown

This character refers to the position that leaves are borne on a stem relative to other leaves and includes two states.

  • Opposite

This state refers to when two leaves are borne at the same level on the stem but on opposite sides of the stem.

  • Not opposite, i.e. alternate or disjunct

This state refers to when leaves are borne singly at different levels along a stem.

Leaf stalk (petioles)

This character refers to the presence of a stalk that connect the expanded green and photosynthetic part of the leaf (lamina) with the stem and includes two states.

  • Present (petiolate)

In this state leaves on a mature plant have a yellow, red or brown stalk (petiole) that connects the flattened green and photosynthetic part of the leaf (lamina) with the stem.

  • Absent (sessile)

In this state the flattened green and photosynthetic leaf (lamina) is directly attached to the stem without a yellow, red or brown stalk (petiole).

Leaf stalk (petiole) length (cm)

This character requires the user to measure the length in centimetres of the petiole or leaf stalk that links the stem with the base of the flattened green and photosynthetic part of the leaf (lamina).

Leaf blade shape

This character refers to the shape of the flattened, green and photosynthetic part of a leaf (blade or lamina) and includes 10 states.

  • Linear

In this state the leaf blade is very narrow, has its sides parallel for most of the leaf length and has a length:width of 12:1 or greater.

  • Lanceolate

In this state the leaf blade is lance-shaped, being widest near the base and gradually narrowing to a pointed tip (apex) and has a length:width of 5:1 or greater.

  • Elliptical

In this state the leaf blade is oval or ellipse shaped, being widest near the middle of the leaf and tapering evenly to the base and to the apex.

  • Sickle-shaped or curved (falcate)

In this state the leaf blade is curved like the blade of a sickle.

  • Ovate

In this state the leaf blade is widest near the base and gradually tapers to the apex, somewhat resembling the shape of an egg (but can be pointed at the apex) and has a length:width of up to 3:1.

  • Orbicular

In this state the leaf blade is approximately round with a similar width as its length.

  • Oblong

In this state the leaf sides are parallel for most of its length and has a length:width of less than 12:1.

  • Obovate

In this state the leaf blade is widest towards the apex and is not notched at its apex.

  • Cordate

In this state the leaf blade is heart-shaped with the petiole (leaf stalk) attached to the leaf blade in the notch of the leaf blade.

  • Obcordate

In this state the leaf blade is widest towards the apex and is notched at its apex.

Leaf blade length (cm)

This character requires the user to measure the leaf in centimetres from apex to the point of attachment to the leaf stalk (petiole) or for cordate leaves to the base of the lobes.

Leaf blade width (cm)

This character requires the user to measure the leaf in centimetres at its widest point.

Leaf blade undulation

This character refers to the flatness of the leaf and includes two states.

  • Flat

In this state the leaf is flat across its entire surface.

  • Undulate

In this state the leaf is not flat but appears wavy when viewed from the side.

Leaf base shape

This character refers to the shape of the leaf blade at its base near to where it is attached to the leaf stalk and includes six states.

  • Oblique on petiole (more than 3 mm displacement)

In this state the margins on either side of the leaf blade meet the leaf stalk(petiole)/midvein at positions more than 3 mm from each other.

  • Tapering to petiole (on both sides, or slightly oblique)

In this state the leaf blade gradually narrows onto the leaf stalk (petiole) and both margins of the blade meet the leaf stalk (petiole) at roughly the same point.

  • Lobed (auriculate)

In this state the leaf blade has lobes that do not clasp the stem near its base.

  • Stem-clasping (amplexicaul)

In this state the leaf blade has lobes that wrap around the stem.

  • Rounded

In this state the leaf blade is curved so that it appears like the leaf stalk is attaching to the curve of a circle.

  • Connate (leaves paired and bases joined)

In this state the leaves are opposite and are joined together sealing in the stem within leaf blade.

Leaf margin (leaves of mature crown)

This character refers to whether the edge of the leaf blade has incisions or incursions or not and includes two states.

  • Entire

In this state the leaf blade is not incised, toothed or with any wavy incursions.

  • Scalloped or toothed (crenulate or denticulate)

In this state the general outline of the leaf that can be categorised into one of the states provided in the leaf blade shape character has incisions forming teeth or has wavy incursions.

Leaf apex shape

This character refers to the shape of the leaf blade at its apex and includes three states.

  • Leaf apex rounded

In this state the end of the leaf (apex) forms a smooth curve without any points.

  • Leaf apex notched (emarginate)

In this state the end of the leaf (apex) has a notch so that the leaf ends in two lobes.

  • Leaf apex pointed

In this state the end of the leaf (apex) has a point either tapering to an acute or obtuse point or with a smaller sharp abrupt point (mucro).

Leaf upper and lower surface (leaves of mature crown)

This character refers to the uniformity of colours on both surfaces of a leaf and includes two states.

  • Same colour on both surfaces (concolorous)

In this state the leaf is the same colour with a similar darkness on both the upper and lower surface. Folding a leaf over so that both surfaces can be compared side by side is the most effective way of determining whether both surfaces are the same colour and darkness.

  • Upper and lower surfaces different colours (discolorous)

In this state the leaf is a different colour or is distinctly darker on one of the surfaces compared to the other. Folding a leaf over so that both surfaces can be compared side by side is the most effective way of determining whether both surfaces are a different colour or darkness.

Leaf colour (upper surface)

This character refers to the colour of the surface (the darker surface if discolorous) of the leaf blade and includes three states.

  • Green or olive green

In this state the surface of the leaf is either an olive green or a green that does not have any tints of grey or blue (e.g. bottle green, lime green).

  • Blue-green or grey-green or blue-grey

In this state the surface of the leaf has a tint of grey or blue.

  • Whitish from surface wax (glaucous)

In this state the leaf is covered in a whitish wax so that the colouration of the leaf tissue beneath is obscured.

Leaf sheen (upper surface)

This character refers to whether the upper surface of the leaf is shiny and includes two states.

  • Glossy

In this state the upper leaf surface is somewhat shiny like a gloss finish.

  • Dull

In this state there is no shininess on the upper surface of the leaf. Dull is the equivalent of a matt finish.

Leaf side-veins

This character refers to how the leaf side-veins diverge from the midrib and includes four states. Side veins are more easily observed with a light source shining from behind the leaf.

  • Side-veins acute (side-veins at an angle less than 45°to midrib)

In this state the side-veins diverge at an angle of less than 45°.

  • Side-veins at an angle greater than 45° to midrib

In this state the side-veins diverge at an angle greater than 45°.

  • Parallel veined (side-veins parallel to midrib)

In this state the side veins diverge from the midrib near the base of the leaf and then run more or less parallel to the midrib.

  • Side-veins not seen, may be obscured by oil glands

In this state the side veins are so faint that they are not easily observed even with light shining from behind the leaf.

Leaf vein network (reticulation density)

This character refers to how frequently the veins of a leaf converge with one another to form grids. Veins of the leaf are most easily viewed when a light is shining from behind the leaf. This character includes four states.

  • Sparsely reticulate or reticulation obscure or absent

In this state the veins of a leaf may not be easily viewed when a light is shining from behind the leaf or the smaller veins are obscure so that reticulation cannot be easily seen.

  • Moderately reticulate

  • Densely reticulate

  • Very densely reticulate

Leaf oil glands

This character refers to where oil glands are observed within a leaf and includes four states. Oil glands appear as yellow dots scattered over the leaf. Oil glands are more easily observed with a light source shining from behind the leaf.

  • Island (mostly isolated from veinlets)

In this state the oil glands are enclosed within the grids made by the networks of veins and do not show obvious connections with the veins.

  • Intersectional (mostly intersecting with veinlets)

In this state the oil glands are clearly connected to the veins.

  • Obscure or apparently absent

In this state it is difficult to distinguish any oil glands when a light source is shining from behind the leaf.

  • Abundant, obscuring veins

In this state the oil glands are so frequent that when the leaf is viewed with light shining from behind mostly circles representing the oil glands are seen with no or few lines representing the veins.

Clusters of buds/flowers (Inflorescences)

This set of five characters refer to the groups of buds/flowers. Eucalypts have either simple umbel or compound inflorescences. A simple umbel consists of a solitary umbel that comes off of a stem/branch that bears leaves. An umbel is a group of flowers or their buds (depending on their maturity) that all attach at the same point at the end of a stalk. Alternatively a compound inflorescence consists of a flowering stem that exclusively bears multiple umbels (no leaves).

Type of bud/flower clusters (inflorescence)

This character refers to how the groups of buds are arranged relative to the leaves and includes four states.

  • Clusters (compound inflorescences) formed at leafless ends of branches (terminal)

In this state more than one cluster (umbel) of buds/flowers arise from a stem that forms at the end of a branch beyond the last leaf. Taxa with axillary inflorescences may give the impression that their inflorescences are terminal if they arise from the axils of fallen leaves that were once attached near the ends of branches. In such cases the original axillary position of these inflorescences can be discerned by looking for a crescent or circular scar that is left from the fallen leaf. This state occurs in the boxes (section Adnataria) and the genera Angophora and Corymbia.

  • Single cluster (umbel) in leaf axil (axillary single)

In this state a single cluster (umbel) of buds/flowers arise from within the angle (axil) made by the leaf and the stem bearing the leaf. Single axillary inflorescences can sometimes appear terminal if they occur in the axils of fallen leaves near the ends of branches. In such cases the original axillary position of these inflorescences can be discerned by looking for a crescent or circular scar that is left from the fallen leaf. This is by far the most frequently observed state among the Eucalypts of Victoria.

  • Two clusters (umbels) in leaf axil (axillary paired)

In this state two clusters (umbels) of buds/flowers arise from within the angle (axil) made by the leaf and the stem bearing the leaf. This state occurs in the tall forest trees, Eucalyptus fastigata and E. regnans.

  • Compound inflorescence formed in leaf axil (axillary compound)

In this state more than one cluster (umbel) of buds/flowers arise from a stem that arises from within the angle (axil) made by the leaf and the stem bearing the leaf. This state occurs in the boxes (section Adnataria) and the genera Angophora and Corymbia.

Bud or flower cluster stalk (peduncle) cross-section

This character refers to how flattened the stalk that unites a group of buds (peduncle) is and includes two states.

  • Rounded to angular to narrowly and slightly flattened

In this state the shape made when making a cross section through the stalk leading to all the buds (peduncle) is circular or like an oval or an ellipse.

  • Broadly flattened (strap-like)

In this state the shape made when making a cross section through the stalk leading to all the buds (peduncle) is distinctively flattened like a strap.

Bud or flower cluster stalk (peduncle) orientation

This character refers to how the buds/flowers are aligned relative to the branch with leaves that they were borne on and includes two states.

  • Erect (in the same direction as the branch)

In this state the buds/flowers continue in the same general direction as the branch. So if a branch was dropping towards the ground the tops of the buds/flowers and the stalks that lead up to them will also head towards the ground. This is by far the most common state in this character among the Victorian Eucalypt taxa.

  • Pendulous or rigidly down-curved (in the opposite direction to branch)

In this state the stalk that leads to where the buds/flowers in a cluster emerge from (peduncle) is bent so that the buds/flowers head in the opposite direction as the general direction as the branch. So if a branch was dropping towards the ground the tops of the buds/flowers and the stalks that lead up to them will point to the sky.

Bud or flower cluster stalk (peduncle) length (cm.)

This character requires the user to measure the length in centimetres of the stalk that leads up to where the buds/flowers in a cluster emerge from.

Number of buds or flowers per cluster (umbel)

This character requires the user to assess the number of buds that are present in each umbel. An umbel is a group of flowers or their buds (depending on their maturity) that all attach at the same point at the end of a stalk. For taxa that have more complex compound inflorescences that have multiple umbels along a flowering stem it is the number of buds or flowers in each one of the umbels that is entered (not the total of the whole compound inflorescence). It is possible that some buds/flowers abort in development of fall off. As a result some umbels may have two or four to six buds/flowers. If no inflorescences are observed on the plant with more than three buds/flowers and an umbel of two buds/flowers is seen it is most likely that this plant typically produces three-flowered umbels. Likewise if no umbels are seen with more than seven buds/flowers and umbels with four to six buds/flowers are observed then it is most likely that this plant typically produces seven-flowered umbels. For this reason it is important to observe a few umbels to get an idea of the typical number of buds/flowers that is expected on an umbel.

  • One-flowered

In this state solitary buds/flowers will be seen with no other buds visible within a couple of centimetres or no scars near where the bud attaches where another bud may have fallen off or aborted. Among the Victorian eucalypts this state is known only in Eucalyptus globulus subsp. globulus and E. verrucata.

  • Three-flowered

Often two bud/flower umbels or solitary buds/flowers may be seen in eucalypts that typically have three-flowered umbels because of the loss of buds. This should be evident by a scar left where the bud was attached to the stalk near where the present buds are attached to the stalk.

  • Seven-flowered

Often umbels with four to six buds/flowers may be seen in eucalypts that typically have seven-flowered umbels because of the loss of buds. This should be evident by a scar left where the bud was attached to the stalk near where the present buds are attached to the stalk.

  • More than seven to fifteen-flowered

  • More than fifteen-flowered

This state can be selected for any Eucalypts that have any umbels where more than fifteen buds/flowers are observed.

Bud

The bud is an unopened flower which in eucalypts are typically found in clusters (umbels) with all buds attaching to the same point at the end of a stalk.

Bud or flower stalk (pedicel)

This character refers to whether a stalk that connects the base of the bud with the stalk that leads to the point where all the neighbouring buds also attach to is present or not and includes two states.

  • Bud stalk present (pedicellate)

In this state the bud has a stalk. This stalk may be very short.

  • Bud stalk absent (sessile)

In this state the buds do not have a stalk but instead are closely clustered together and arise directly at the top of the stalk that connects the group of buds (umbel) with a stem.

Bud stalk (pedicel) length (cm)

This character requires the user to measure the length of the stalk that connects the base of the bud with the stalk that leads to the point where all the neighbouring buds also attach to. In some taxa the stalk may be very short. 0 is entered for taxa where no stalk is evident.

Bud shape (not including fused buds)

This character refers to the shape of the bud (unopened flower) when viewed from the side. It includes the cap that comes off to reveal the stamens and style.

  • Club-shaped to obovoid (clavate - obovoid)

In this state the bud when viewed from the side is widest near where the cap (operculum) attaches narrowing towards the base and resembles a club.

  • Oblong (cylindrical)

In this state the bud when viewed from the side has more or less parallel sides with a similar width near where the cap (operculum) attaches as near the base.

  • Ovoid

In this state the bud when viewed from the side is widest near the base and consistently and gradually narrows towards the top (apex). As a result this bud resembles an egg.

  • Spindle-shaped (fusiform)

In this state the bud when viewed from the side is widest near the middle, where it bulges, becoming narrower towards the top and near the base. As a result this bud resembles a spindle.

  • Diamond-shaped (broadly fusiform)

In this state the bud when viewed from the side is widest near the middle becoming narrower towards the top and near the base. This bud resembles a diamond from the side.

  • Pear-shaped (pyriform)

In this state the bud resembles a pear when viewed from the side with the narrower part of the pear towards the base.

  • Globular

In this state the bud is shaped like a globe or sphere.

  • Square in cross-section

In this state the bud appears to have edges and if cut in cross-section will be square.

  • Very elongated

In this state the bud is distinctly elongated and resembles fingers.

  • Mushroom shaped

In this state the bud is cylindric at its base and then flares out to a conical top like a mushroom. This state only occurs in the introduced Western Australian Eucalyptus gomphocephala.

Bud glaucescence

This character refers to the presence of a white waxy coating on the bud and includes two states.

  • Bud white from wax (glaucous)

In this state the bud has a coating of white wax over the green bud.

  • Bud not white from wax (not glaucous)

In this state the bud lacks a coating of white wax so the bud appears greenish without any white.

Bud surface texture

This character refers to the texture and indument over the surface of the bud and includes four states.

  • Smooth

In this state the bud is completely smooth with no indument or warts felt or visible.

  • Warty

In this state the bud has distinct raised bumps that can be felt.

  • Scaly or scurfy

In this state small flake-like structures can be seen over the surface of the bud.

  • Hairy

In this state the bud is distinctively hairy with the hairs clearly visible to the unaided eye. This state occurs only in Angophora.

Bud ridges, ribs or angles (longitudinal)

This character refers to the presence of ridges, ribs or angles on the bud, which can be seen and felt, and includes two states.

  • Bud ridges, ribs or angles present

In this state ridges, ribs or angles on the bud can be seen and felt on the bud.

  • Bud ridges, ribs or angles absent

In this state the bud has a more or less rounded cross-section without any edges.

Scar on bud from cap (operculum) falling off

Flowers in the genera Corymbia and Eucalyptus lack showy sepals and petals. These are instead fused into a cap (operculum) which is shed to expose the reproductive parts (stamens and style) beneath. Some eucalypts produce two caps. For those that produce two the outer cap is shed early in the development of the bud and leaves a scar on the flower bud. This can be seen as a thin line of dead tissue (usually brown) that forms a ring where the cap is attached to the basal part (hypanthium) of the bud. Those eucalypts that do not display a cap scar only produce one cap. In some eucalypts with no cap scar the cap will be a slightly different colour or tone to the basal parts of the bud below which may give the impression that a scar was formed because a clear boundary between the cap and hypanthium can be seen that is often not present in eucalypts with no cap scar.

  • Scar present

In this state a thin line of dead tissue (usually brown), evident of a former second cap, forms a ring where the cap is attached to the basal part (hypanthium) of the bud. In some eucalypts the scar is present as an obvious indented ring e.g. Eucalyptus globulus.

  • Scar absent

In this state no line of dead tissue (usually brown) forming a ring where the cap is attached to the basal part (hypanthium) of the bud is visible. In eucalypts with no cap scar it is often not obvious where the cap and the hypanthium meet before the cap is shed, but in some this can be discerned by the difference in colour or tone in the cap compared to the hypanthium.

Cap (operculum) shape

This character refers to the shape of the cap or operculum of the bud and includes seven states.

  • Beaked

In this state the apex of the cap is an extended beak-like point attached to a broader basal part of the cap.

  • Conical

In this state the cap is cone-shaped, with more or less straight sides.

  • Horn-shaped

In this state the cap is long, often longer than the basal part (hypanthium) of the bud, and gradually tapers to a point. The cap may be curved to one side.

  • Rounded-hemispherical/shortly cylindrical (may be apiculate/umbonate)

In this state the cap is shaped like a hemisphere but there may be a small sharp point or hump as its apex.

  • Flattened (may be umbonate or radially ridged)

In this state the cap does not extend much higher than the basal part (hypanthium) of the bud and may have a small hump as its apex.

  • Pyramidal

In this state the cap is shaped like a pyramid with edges to the cap.

  • Turban shaped (like a Sheik's turban)

In this state the cap becomes broader towards the apex like an inverted cone.

Stamen inflexion in bud (longitudinal section)

This character requires the user to make a longitudinal section (plane from the bud stalk to the bud apex) and observe whether and how the stamens are bent within and includes four states.

  • Erect

In this state all the stamens are straight without any bends. This state occurs in taxa that have long opercula that can accommodate the full length of the stamen without it needing to bend to fit within the bud.

  • Inflexed

In this state all the stamens are bent in a uniform way so that the anthers are all closer to the center of the bud than the base of the filament.

  • Irregular

In this state the anther are bent in different directions.

  • Some outer filaments erect, most deflexed

Flower

The flower in the Eucalypts is composed of many stamens that are the showiest part of the flower, a single style and the petals and sepals (perianth) are either free or are fused to form a cap (operculum) that seals the reproductive parts of the flower inside until it falls off. There are eight flower characters provided.

Perianth (petals and sepals)

This character refers to the petals and sepals of a flower and includes two states. In the vast majority of Eucalypts the petals and sepals are fused to form a cap (operculum) that seals the reproductive parts of the flower inside until it falls off.

  • Fused to form a cap (operculum)

Flowers in the genera Corymbia and Eucalyptus lack free sepals and petals. These are instead fused into a cap (operculum) which is shed to expose the reproductive parts (stamens and style) beneath.

  • Outer of free sepals, inner of free petals

Flowers in the genus Angophora retain free sepals and petals rather than the petals and sepals fusing to form a cap (operculum).

Sterile stamens (Staminodes)

This character refers to whether sterile stamens are present or not and includes two states

  • Sterile stamens present

In this state the outer stamens will be reduced to just filaments without anthers at their ends or the anther will be largely reduced in comparison to the more inner stamens.

  • Sterile stamens absent

In this state all filaments will have similarly sized anthers near their tips unless the stamen has become damaged.

Anther shape (mature but undistorted by dehiscence)

This character refers to the shape of the anther and includes four states. The anther is the organ that produces the pollen at the end of the male organs (stamens) of a flower.

  • Oblong (cuboid)

In this state the anther is roughly shaped like a rectangular prism or a cube.

  • Kidney-shaped to heart-shaped (reniform to cordate)

  • Wedge-shaped (cuneate)

  • Spherical (globoid)

Anther attachment

This character refers to the way that the anther is fixed onto its stalk (filament) and includes two states. The use of a microscope will probably be required to accurately determine the type of anther attachment.

  • Pivoting (versatile)

In this state the anther is attached to its stalk (filament) by a narrow attachment allowing it to pivot.

  • Rigid (adnate)

In this state the anther is attached to its stalk (filament) by a broad attachment so that the anther is fixed in its position and not able to pivot. All anthers that are adnate are basifixed (i.e. the stalk attaches to the base of the anther at the base of the tissue that connect the two anther sacs together). This anther attachment state characterises the box and ironbark Eucalyptus group (Section Adnataria).

Anther dehiscence (slits or pores)

This character refers to the arrangement of the pores or slits that allow the pollen to exit from the anther and includes two states. The use of a microscope will probably be required to accurately determine the type of anther dehiscence.

  • Confluent

In this state the slit of each anther sac that allows the pollen to exit from the anther merges with the slit of the other sac near the anther apex. Anthers that have confluent slits are kidney-shaped.

  • Remaining separate

In this state the slits of each pollen sac remain separate or the pollen is shed through pores.

Flower colour (filament colour)

The filaments (anther stalks) of the stamens, which are numerous, are primarily responsible for the colour of the flowers because the petals and sepals are either fused into the cap (operculum) or if free are not large and showy. Consequently, the colour of the flower is based solely on the colour of the filament. There are four flower colour states to choose from with most of the Victorian Eucalypts having white or creamy white filaments.

  • White or creamy white

  • Red

  • Pink

  • Yellow or lemon

Ovary chamber number (= valve number in fruit)

This character refers to how many chambers can be seen if the ovary of the flower (the female organ at the base of the central style) is cut in cross section and includes two states. The ovary chamber number is equivalent to the number of valves when in fruit.

  • Three or four

  • More than four

Ovule row number (vertical rows in each locule)

This character refers to how many vertical rows of ovules occur in each of the chambers or locules of the ovary (the female organ at the base of the central style) and includes four states. The use of a microscope will probably be required to accurately determine the ovule row number.

  • Two

  • Four

  • Six or more

  • Three, five, seven or indistinct (bloodwoods & ghost gums)

Fruit

The fruit in the Eucalypts are the structures that contain the seeds and are colloquially referred to as gum nuts. However, they are technically not nuts, which botanically refers to a different form of fruit. The Eucalypt fruit is actually a capsule as it is a dry fruit with multiple compartments that contain seeds and the seeds are released by the fruit opening in a regular way via triangular teeth-like valves at the top.

Fruit cluster stalk (peduncle) orientation

This character refers to how the fruit are aligned relative to the branch with leaves that they emerged from and includes two states.

  • Peduncle erect (in the same direction as branch)

In this state the fruit continue in the same general direction as the branch. So if a branch was dropping towards the ground the tops of the fruit and their stalks will also head towards the ground. This is by far the most common state in this character among the Victorian Eucalypt taxa.

  • Peduncle pendulous or rigidly down-curved (in the opposite direction to branch)

In this state the stalk that leads to where the fruit in a cluster emerge from (peduncle) is bent so that the fruit head in the opposite direction as the same general direction as the branch. So if a branch was dropping towards the ground the tops of the fruit and their stalks will point to the sky.

Fruit stalk (pedicel)

This character refers to the presence or absence of a stalk that connects the base of the fruit to where other fruit emerge from and includes two states.

  • Fruit stalk present (pedicellate)

In this state the fruit has a stalk that connects the base of the fruit to where other fruit emerge from. In some taxa this stalk may be very short.

  • Fruit stalk absent (sessile)

In this state the fruit does not have a stalk but instead rests directly on the stem or where other fruit emerge from. Due to this lack of a stalk sessile fruits when they are not solitary often appear together as tightly packed globular clusters.

Fruit stalk (pedicel) length (cm)

This character requires the user to measure in centimetres the length of the stalk that connects the base of the fruit to where other fruit emerge from.

Fruit fusion

This character refers to whether the individual fruits are joined by their wall so that to isolate an individual fruit requires cutting. This character includes two states.

  • Fused by fruit walls (hypanthia)

In this state the fruit is fused with other fruit by the walls of the fruit (their hypanthia) so that only the top of the fruit (rim, disc and valves) are visible. This state occurs only in the introduced Western Australian Eucalyptus conferruminata.

  • Fruit free

In this state the fruit are not fused to other fruit by their hypanthia (walls). As a result the sides and shape of the individual fruits are clearly evident. In some taxa the fruit are close together because they are sessile and may even have flattened sides where they come in contact with their neighbouring fruits. Despite abutting these fruit are not fused and can be separated from each other by pulling a fruit from the cluster without the need for cutting. This state occurs in all but one of the Eucalypt taxa in Victoria.

Fruit shape (excluding disc and fused fruit)

This character refers to the shape of the fruit, excluding the parts of the fruit near the top (disc and valves) when viewed from the side. It includes nine states.

  • Cup-shaped

In this state the fruit below the rim when viewed from the side has gently curving sides and tapers abruptly near the base onto the stalk resembling a wine glass.

  • Cylindrical

In this state the fruit below the rim when viewed from the side has long parallel sides and tapers abruptly near the base.

  • Urn-shaped (urceolate)

In this state the fruit below the rim when viewed from the side resembles an urn, being round near its base where it is widest and then tapers towards the top where it has a short length of parallel sides.

  • Barrel-shaped (truncate-ovoid)

In this state the fruit below the rim when viewed from the side resembles a barrel, being widest near the middle and becoming narrower near the top and tapering gradually onto the stalk at the base.

  • Funnel-shaped (obconical)

In this state the fruit below the rim when viewed from the side resembles a funnel, being widest at the top, narrowing towards the base onto the stalk.

  • Bell-shaped (campanulate)

In this state the fruit below the rim when viewed from the side resembles a bell, being widest at the top where the sides abruptly flare out and then shaped like half of a globe (hemisphere) below the flared top.

  • Hemispherical

In this state the fruit below the rim when viewed from the side is the shape of half of a globe (hemisphere).

  • Truncate-globose or spherical

In this state the fruit below the rim when viewed from the side resembles a globe/sphere or a globe that has had the very top cut off producing a flat top.

  • Square in cross-section

In this state the fruit has flattened sides so that when viewed from above it appears square-like.

Fruit length (cm; avoid fused fruit)

This character requires the user to measure in centimetres the length from the top of the fruit to the stalk.

Fruit width (cm; avoid fused fruit)

This character requires the user to measure in centimetres the width of the fruit at its widest point.

Fruit wall

This character refers to whether the fruit wall is smooth or not and includes two states.

  • Ridged, ribbed or angled longitudinally

In this state the fruit wall has clear ridges or ribs that are easily felt and seen.

  • Not ridged, ribbed or angled longitudinally

In this state the fruit wall is smooth all the way around.

Fruit glaucescence

This character refers to whether the fruit has a layer of wax giving a whitish appearance and includes two states.

  • Fruit white from wax (glaucous)

In this state the fruit will appear whitish because it has wax on some part of it.

  • Fruit not white from wax

In this state the fruit is completely devoid of wax and as a result will not appear whitish.

Disc of fruit

This character refers to the structure of the fruit that extends from where the stamens were once attached and the valves (openings in the top of the ovary where the seeds are released from). The disc can either ascend away from the stalk, it can be flat forming a flat top to the fruit or it can descend into the fruit towards the stalk.

  • Raised above rim

In this state the disc ascends away from the stalk. The base of the disc will be defined by a line formed from where the stamens were once attached. In this state the disc is clearly visible when the fruit is viewed from the side.

  • Level with rim

In this state the disc is flat forming a flat top to the fruit and is not visible when the fruit is viewed from the side.

  • Descending inside rim

In this state the disc descends into the fruit towards the stalk and is not visible when the fruit is viewed from the side.

Valve number (= ovary chamber number)

This character refers to the number of valves at the top of the fruit. The valves are the triangular teeth-like structures that open to release the seeds from within the fruit. The valve number is equivalent to the ovary chamber (locule) number.

  • Valves three or four

  • Valves more than four

Valve tips (mature dehisced fruit)

This character refers to the position of the valve tips when they open relative to the top of the fruit other than the valves (rim) and includes three states. The valves are the triangular teeth-like structures that open to release the seeds from within the fruit. This character may only be used after the valves have opened (dehisced) to release the seeds from inside the fruit. The chambers (locules) that the seeds were once in are visible from above the fruit if the valves have dehisced.

  • Strongly exserted

In this state the tips of the valves are visible when the fruit is viewed from the side because the valves clearly extend higher than the rim and disc of the fruit.

  • Near rim level (just above or just below)

In this state the tips of the valves extend to, just above or just below the rim level.

  • Enclosed (not visible)

In this state the tips of the valves are not visible when the fruit is viewed from the side because they are well below the rim of the fruit.

Valve tips fusion (in dehisced fruit)

This character refers to whether the valves after they open (dehisce) to release the seeds from inside the fruit remain joined at their tips or not and includes two states.

  • Tips fused across orifice

In this state the tip of the valves remain joined so that the seeds pass through the oval-shaped gaps between the valves.

  • Tips free

In this state the valves completely separate from each other to release the seeds.

Seed

The seed in Eucalypts are small (less than 3 mm) and are released from inside the fruit when the triangular teeth-like valves open. If the valves of the fruit are sealed, leaving the fruit in a paper bag for a week will allow time for the valves to open and release the seed into the bag.

Seed colour (excluding chaff)

This character refers to the colour of the seed and includes six states. It is important when using this character to think about all the colour states provided before choosing a state as while seed may be brownish it may also have a hint of red and actually be correctly placed in one of the reddish brown states rather than simply brown.

  • Seeds black

  • Seeds brown

In this state the seed does not have any hints of red.

  • Seeds reddish brown & dull

  • Seeds reddish brown & lustrous

  • Seeds grey

  • Seeds yellow to straw coloured

Seed shape

This character categorises the eucalypt seeds into seven shape states. Due to the size of the seeds, the variability of seed shape within an individual and the similarity between the states, this character can be difficult to use and should only be used if a the eucalypt to be identified produces seed that obviously falls within one of the following states.

  • Flattened or saucer shaped

  • Pyramidal or obliquely pyramidal

  • Boat-shaped

  • Cuboid

In this state the seed has obscure faces and edges giving the seed a somewhat cube-like appearance.

  • Pointed at one end

  • D-shaped

  • Ovoid or flattened-ovoid

In this state the seed is broader at one end and tapers to the other end resembling the shape of an egg and is often flattened.

Seed hilum position

This character refers to the scar on the seed that is created from detachment of the seed from the parent plant and includes two states.

  • Ventral

In this state the scar on the seed created from detachment of the seed from the parent plant is located on one of the sides of the seed.

  • Terminal

In this state the scar on the seed created from detachment of the seed from the parent plant is located at an end of the seed.

Immature Plant

This set of twelve characters refer to structures on a plant before it reaches maturity (e.g. features of the saplings or seedlings).

Juvenile stem cross-section (juvenile or coppice growth to 50 cm)

This character refers to the shape made when making a cross section through the stem of a juvenile plant (sapling slightly larger than a seedling) or coppice growth to 50 centimetres in length.

  • Juvenile stem rounded (terete)

In this state the stem cross-section is roughly circular.

  • Juvenile stem square

In this state the stem has flattened sides so that when it is cut as a cross-section the cross-section is square.

  • Juvenile stem prominently winged

In this state the stem has obvious wing-like extensions. Square stems may have wings extending from each of the ridges. In such a case this would be considered a prominently winged stem rather than a square stem.

  • Juvenile stem three-sided

In this state the stem has a triangular cross-section.

  • Juvenile stem five-sided

In this state the stem cross-section has five sides. The mallee species from north-western Victoria, Eucalyptus oleosa subsp. oleosa, is the only Victorian taxon that may have this state.

Juvenile leaf position (juvenile or coppice growth to 50 cm)

This character refers to the position of the juvenile leaves or leaves produced in coppice growth on the stem in relation to other leaves and includes two states.

  • Juvenile leaves opposite

In this state the juvenile leaves or leaves of coppice growth are borne on the stem at the same level but on opposite sides of the stem.

  • Juvenile leaves not opposite, i.e. disjunct or spiral

In this state the juvenile leaves or leaves of coppice growth are borne at different levels from other leaves along the stem.

Juvenile leaf stalk (leaf petiole, juvenile or coppice growth to 50 cm)

This character refers to whether a leaf stalk (petiole) is present on juvenile leaves or leaves of coppice growth and includes two states.

  • Present on most leaves (petiolate)

In this state most leaves will have a distinct stalk (petiole) that attaches the flat, broader, green and photosynthetic part of the leaf (lamina) to the stem.

  • Absent on most leaves (sessile)

In this state the flat, green and photosynthetic part of the leaf (lamina) is attached directly to the stem that bears other leaves and does not have a stalk that attaches the lamina to the stem.

Juvenile leaf blade shape (juvenile or coppice growth to 50 cm)

This character refers to the shape of the flat, green and photosynthetic part of the leaf (blade or lamina) in juvenile plants or coppice growth to 50 cm long and includes nine states.

  • Juvenile leaves orbicular (round or sometimes wider than long)

In this state the leaf blade is approximately round with a similar width as its length.

  • Juvenile leaves ovate

In this state the leaf blade is widest near the base and gradually tapers to the apex, somewhat resembling the shape of an egg (but can be pointed at the apex) and has a length:width of up to 3:1.

  • Juvenile leaves lanceolate

In this state the leaf blade is lance-shaped, being widest near the base and gradually narrowing to a pointed tip (apex) and has a length:width of 5:1 or greater.

  • Juvenile leaves sickle-shaped or curved (falcate)

In this state the leaf blade is curved like the blade of a sickle.

  • Juvenile leaves elliptical

In this state the leaf blade is oval or ellipse shaped, being widest near the middle of the leaf and tapering evenly to the base and to the apex.

  • Juvenile leaves cordate

In this state the leaf blade is heart-shaped with the petiole (leaf stalk) attached to the leaf blade in the notch of the leaf blade.

  • Juvenile leaves linear

In this state the leaf blade is very narrow, has its sides parallel for most of the leaf length and has a length:width of 12:1 or greater.

  • Juvenile leaves triangular (deltoid)

In this state the leaf is triangular with the sides more or less equal in length.

  • Juvenile leaves oblong

In this state the leaf sides are parallel for most of its length and has a length:width of less than 12:1.

Juvenile leaf blade length (juvenile or coppice growth to 50 cm, average leaf, in cm.): cm#

This character requires the user to measure leaves of juveniles or coppice growth in centimetres from the apex to the point of attachment to the leaf stalk (petiole) or for cordate leaves to the base of the lobes.

Juvenile leaf blade width (juvenile or coppice growth to 50 cm, average leaf, in cm.): cm#

This character requires the user to measure the juvenile leaf in centimetres at its widest point.

Juvenile leaf base shape (juvenile or coppice growth to 50 cm)

This character refers to the shape of the blade near to where it is attached to the leaf stalk and includes eight states.

  • Juvenile leaf base connate (leaves paired with bases joined)

In this state the leaves are opposite and are joined together sealing in the stem within leaf blade.

  • Juvenile leaf base stem-clasping (amplexicaul)

In this state the leaf blade has lobes that wrap around the stem.

  • Juvenile leaf base peltate

In this state the leaf stalk (petiole) attaches to the blade on its surface rather than at a margin.

  • Juvenile leaf base tapering to petiole (on both sides, or slightly oblique)

In this state the leaf blade gradually narrows onto the leaf stalk (petiole) and both margins of the blade meet the leaf stalk (petiole) at roughly the same point.

  • Juvenile leaf base distinctly oblique on petiole (more than 3 mm displacement)

In this state the margins on either side of the leaf blade meet the leaf stalk (petiole)/midvein at positions more than 3 mm from each other.

  • Juvenile leaf base lobed (auriculate)

In this state the leaf blade has lobes that do not clasp the stem near its base.

  • Juvenile leaf base squared (truncate)

In this state the leaf base meets the stalk approximately perpendicularly.

  • Juvenile leaf base rounded

In this state the leaf blade is curved so that it appears like the leaf stalk is attaching to the curve of a circle.

Juvenile leaf margin (juvenile or coppice growth to 50 cm)

This character refers to whether the edge of the leaf blade of a juvenile or coppice growth has incisions or incursions or not and includes two states.

  • Juvenile leaf margin entire

In this state the leaf blade is not incised, toothed or with any wavy incursions.

  • Juvenile leaf margin scalloped or toothed (crenulate or denticulate), or irregular

In this state the general outline of the leaf that can be categorised into one of the states provided in the leaf blade shape character has incisions forming teeth or has wavy incursions.

Juvenile leaf apex shape (juvenile or coppice growth to 50 cm)

This character refers to the shape of the apex of the leaf blade of juveniles or coppice growth and includes three states.

  • Juvenile leaf apex rounded

In this state the end of the leaf (apex) forms a smooth curve without any points.

  • Juvenile leaf apex notched (emarginate)

In this state the end of the leaf (apex) has a notch so that the leaf ends in two lobes.

  • Juvenile leaf apex pointed

In this state the end of the leaf (apex) has a point either tapering to an acute or obtuse point or with a smaller sharp abrupt point (mucro).

Juvenile leaf colour (juvenile or coppice growth to 50 cm)

This character refers to the colour of the upper surface (the darker surface if discolorous) of the juvenile leaf blade or leaf blade of coppice growth and includes three states.

  • Juvenile leaf colour blue-green or grey-green or blue-grey

In this state the surfaces of the leaf have a tint of grey or blue.

  • Juvenile leaf colour green

In this state the surfaces of the leaf is a green that does not have any tints of grey or blue (e.g. bottle green, lime green).

  • Juvenile leaf colour whitish with surface wax (glaucous)

In this state the leaf is covered in a whitish wax so that the colouration of the leaf tissue beneath is obscured.

Juvenile leaf hairs, or scabridity (juvenile or coppice growth to 50 cm)

This character refers to whether hairs or roughness are present on the surface of the leaves of juveniles or coppice growth and includes two states.

  • Juvenile leaf hairs present

In this state the leaf surface of the juvenile or coppice growth is covered in hairs or the leaf surface is rough to touch because of minute rough hairs.

  • Juvenile leaf hairs absent

In this state the leaf surface of the juvenile or coppice growth is smooth without any hairs.

Seedling stem cross-section (cultivated seedling)

This character refers to the shape of the cross-section through the stem of a seedling and includes five states.

  • Seedling stem rounded (terete)

In this state the seedling stem is more or less cylindric so that its cross-section is circlular or ellipsoid.

  • Seedling stem square

In this state the seedling stem has four ridges so that its cross-section is square.

  • Seedling stem prominently winged

In this state the ridges of the stem extend as wings-like flanges.

  • Seedling stem three-sided

In this state the seedling stem has three ridges and faces.

  • Seedling stem five-sided (or more)

In this state the seedling stem has five or more ridges and faces.