Myriophyllum simulans Orchard

Amphibious Water-milfoil

Brunonia 8: 203 (1986) APNI

Taxonomic status:Accepted

Occurrence status:Present

Establishment means:Native

Perennial aquatic or marsh herb; stems 5–40 cm tall, mostly 1–2 mm diam., rooting at nodes. Leaves dimorphic; submerged leaves in whorls of 4 or 5, orbicular, mostly 18–25 mm long, crowded, pectinate, with 22–27 pinnae; emergent leaves in whorls of 3 or 4, some irregularly arranged, linear to terete, mostly 5–15 mm long, margins entire; in terrestrial plants all leaves intermediate between submerged and emergent types. Bracteoles of male flowers ovate, 0.8–1.2 mm long, entire or erose; bracteoles of female flowers smaller; flowers solitary, sessile. Male flowers: sepals 4, linear to lanceolate, 0.9–1.1 mm long; petals 4, 2.8–3 mm long, reddish, caducous; stamens 8. Female flowers: sepals and petals absent; ovary 4-celled, styles elongate, becoming reflexed, stigmas red or pink, fading to white, fimbriate. Fruit more or less cubic, deep reddish-purple; mericarps ovoid, c. 0.8 mm long, obliquely truncate, aculeate-tuberculate. Flowers Sep.–Mar.

Brid, CVU, DunT, EGL, EGU, GipP, Glep, Gold, GGr, HNF, HSF, LoM, MuF, MuM, NIS, OtP, VRiv, VVP, WaP, WPro, Wim. Also SA, Qld, NSW, Tas. Found throughout much of southern Victoria where it grows in still water or, more often, fully emergent on mud.

Very polymorphic and only reliably distinguished from closely related taxa when flowers and fruit are present. See also notes under Myriophyllum variifolium.

Source: Jeanes, J.A. (1996). Haloragaceae. In: Walsh, N.G.; Entwisle, T.J. (eds), Flora of Victoria Vol. 3, Dicotyledons Winteraceae to Myrtaceae. Inkata Press, Melbourne.
Updated by: Val Stajsic, 2017-08-16
Hero image
Distribution map
life Life
kingdom Plantae
phylum Tracheophyta
superorder [Saxifraganae]
order Saxifragales
family Haloragaceae
genus Myriophyllum
Higher taxa


Source: AVH (2014). Australia's Virtual Herbarium, Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, <>. Find Myriophyllum simulans in AVH ; Victorian Biodiversity Atlas, © The State of Victoria, Department of Environment and Primary Industries (published Dec. 2014) Find Myriophyllum simulans in Victorian Biodiversity Atlas
  Bioregion Occurrence status Establishment means
Lowan Mallee present native
Murray Mallee present native
Wimmera present native
Glenelg Plain present native
Bridgewater present native
Victorian Volcanic Plain present native
Victorian Riverina present native
Murray Fans present native
Gippsland Plain present native
Otway Plain present native
Warrnambool Plain present native
Goldfields present native
Central Victorian Uplands present native
Greater Grampians present native
Dundas Tablelands present native
Northern Inland Slopes present native
East Gippsland Lowlands present native
East Gippsland Uplands present native
Wilsons Promontory present native
Highlands-Southern Fall present native
Highlands-Northern Fall present native

State distribution

Distribution map
South Australia
New South Wales
Australian Capital Territory