Myriophyllum verrucosum Lindl.

Red Water-milfoil

in T.Mitch., J. Exped. Trop. Australia 384 (1848) APNI

Taxonomic status:Accepted

Occurrence status:Present

Establishment means:Native

Perennial aquatic herb, glabrous; stems 0.1–1.5 m long, 1–1.5 mm diam., rooting at lower nodes. Leaves dimorphic; submerged leaves in whorls of 3 or 4, orbicular, 6–12 mm long, pectinate, with 14–20 pinnae; emergent leaves in whorls of 3 or 4, rarely 5, lanceolate to ovate, 3–9 mm long, glaucous green to reddish-purple, lower ones pinnately lobed or dissected, becoming entire on upper stems. Bracteoles lanceolate to oblanceolate or ovate, 0.8–0.9 mm long, entire or toothed. Flowers sometimes transitionally bisexual, sessile, solitary. Male flowers: sepals 4, triangular, 0.3–0.4 mm long, yellowish; petals 4, 1.7–2.5 mm long, yellow, caducous; stamens 8. Female flowers: sepals 4, triangular, minute; petals vestigial; ovary 4-celled, styles clavate, stigmas white. Fruit cubiform, straw-coloured, red or grey; mericarps cylindric, 0.9–1.1 mm long, with irregular ridges and warts. Flowers throughout the year.

CVU, DunT, EGL, EGU, GipP, Glep, Gold, GGr, HNF, HSF, LoM, MonT, MuF, MuM, MSB, NIS, OtP, RobP, VRiv, VVP, Wim. All mainland states. Widespread throughout most of Victoria, particularly in drier areas, where found in permanent and semi-permanent water.

Plants growing on mud have a stunted habit and are fertile, while those growing in deep, fast-flowing water remain sterile.

Source: Jeanes, J.A. (1996). Haloragaceae. In: Walsh, N.G.; Entwisle, T.J. (eds), Flora of Victoria Vol. 3, Dicotyledons Winteraceae to Myrtaceae. Inkata Press, Melbourne.
Updated by: Val Stajsic, 2017-08-16
Hero image
Distribution map
life Life
kingdom Plantae
phylum Tracheophyta
superorder [Saxifraganae]
order Saxifragales
family Haloragaceae
genus Myriophyllum
Higher taxa


Source: AVH (2014). Australia's Virtual Herbarium, Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, <>. Find Myriophyllum verrucosum in AVH ; Victorian Biodiversity Atlas, © The State of Victoria, Department of Environment and Primary Industries (published Dec. 2014) Find Myriophyllum verrucosum in Victorian Biodiversity Atlas
  Bioregion Occurrence status Establishment means
Lowan Mallee present native
Murray Mallee present native
Wimmera present native
Glenelg Plain present native
Victorian Volcanic Plain present native
Victorian Riverina present native
Murray Scroll Belt present native
Robinvale Plains present native
Murray Fans present native
Gippsland Plain present native
Otway Plain present native
Goldfields present native
Central Victorian Uplands present native
Greater Grampians present native
Dundas Tablelands present native
Northern Inland Slopes present native
East Gippsland Lowlands present native
East Gippsland Uplands present native
Highlands-Southern Fall present native
Highlands-Northern Fall present native
Monaro Tablelands present native

State distribution

Distribution map
Western Australia
Northern Territory
South Australia
New South Wales
Australian Capital Territory