Juncus bufonius L.

Toad Rush

Sp. Pl. 328 (1753) APNI

Taxonomic status:Accepted

Occurrence status:Present

Establishment means:Uncertain

Tufted or single-stemmed annual. Culms erect, 1–30 cm high. Leaves basal and cauline, shorter than or exceeding the culms; blade flat or channelled, solid, 0.5–1.2 mm wide, acute or subacute; sheath ± tinged red toward the base; auricles absent. Inflorescence usually at least half the height of the plant, flowers borne singly along the spike-like branches, or in 2–8-flowered clusters; primary bract erect or spreading, channelled, longer or shorter than the inflorescence; prophylls present. Tepals unequal, with a green ± reddish tinged midrib and pale membranous margins; outer 3–7.5(–12) mm long, acuminate with excurved apices; inner shorter than outer, acute to acuminate; stamens 3–6. Capsules ± reddish in the upper part, oblong, 2.2–4 mm long, sub-acute to obtuse and shortly mucronate, shorter than tepals; seeds c. 0.3–0.5 mm long, with very fine longitudinal and transverse ridges discernible at high magnification, minutely apiculate at one or both ends. Flowers sporadically, but mostly Oct.–Jan., seeds shed mostly Nov.–Mar.

Brid, CVU, DunT, EGL, EGU, Glep, Gold, GGr, HFE, HNF, LoM, MuM, MSB, NIS, OtP, OtR, RobP, SnM, Strz, VAlp, VRiv, VVP, WaP, WPro, Wim, *GipP, *HSF, *MuF. All States. Cosmopolitan. A widely distributed annual found in permanently or seasonally damp areas in a range of vegetation communities. Frequently occurs in crops and gardens.

Recognized here as one extremely variable species, but several taxa may ultimately be distinguished. Some forms may be introduced.

Source: Albrecht, D.E. (1994). Juncus. In: Walsh, N.G.; Entwisle, T.J. (eds), Flora of Victoria Vol. 2, Ferns and Allied Plants, Conifers and Monocotyledons. Inkata Press, Melbourne.
Updated by: Val Stajsic, 2019-03-04
Hero image
Distribution map
life Life
kingdom Plantae
phylum Tracheophyta
superorder Lilianae
order Poales
family Juncaceae
genus Juncus
Higher taxa


Source: AVH (2014). Australia's Virtual Herbarium, Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, <http://avh.chah.org.au>. Find Juncus bufonius in AVH ; Victorian Biodiversity Atlas, © The State of Victoria, Department of Environment and Primary Industries (published Dec. 2014) Find Juncus bufonius in Victorian Biodiversity Atlas
  Bioregion Occurrence status Establishment means
Lowan Mallee present uncertain
Murray Mallee present uncertain
Wimmera present uncertain
Glenelg Plain present uncertain
Bridgewater present uncertain
Victorian Volcanic Plain present uncertain
Victorian Riverina present uncertain
Murray Scroll Belt present uncertain
Robinvale Plains present uncertain
Murray Fans present introduced
Gippsland Plain present introduced
Otway Plain present uncertain
Warrnambool Plain present uncertain
Goldfields present uncertain
Central Victorian Uplands present uncertain
Greater Grampians present uncertain
Dundas Tablelands present uncertain
Northern Inland Slopes present uncertain
East Gippsland Lowlands present uncertain
East Gippsland Uplands present uncertain
Wilsons Promontory present uncertain
Highlands-Southern Fall present introduced
Highlands-Northern Fall present uncertain
Otway Ranges present uncertain
Strzelecki Ranges present uncertain
Highlands-Far East present uncertain
Victorian Alps present uncertain
Snowy Mountains present uncertain

State distribution

Distribution map
Western Australia
Northern Territory
South Australia
New South Wales
Australian Capital Territory