Xanthium occidentale Bertol.

Noogoora Burr

Lucubr. Re Herb. 38 (1822) APNI

Taxonomic status:Accepted

Occurrence status:Present

Establishment means:Naturalised

Erect, usually branched annual herb to c. 2 m high; stems hispid, unarmed, purplish. Leaves broad-ovate to triangular in outline, mostly 4–15 cm long and wide, 3- or 5-lobed, dark green, dull and scabrous above, paler and scabrous beneath, prominently 3-veined, lobe apices acute to subacute, base cordate to truncate, margins coarsely and irregularly toothed; petiole 2–12 cm long. Male capitula 0–7, 5–8 mm diam.; involucral bracts ovate, 1–3 mm long; florets c. as long as involucre, pubescent. Female capitula 1–12 in axils below males; fruiting involucre ellipsoid, 4–7 mm diam., 12–20 mm long, pubescent with wholly or predominantly eglandular hairs; hooked spines 2–3 mm long, pubescent in lower half, dark brown; beaks broad-based, 3–5 mm long, divergent, more or less straight, the tips straight or inflexed, but not strongly hooked. Cypselas 1–1.5 cm long. Flowers Dec.–Mar.

*CVU, *EGU, *Gold, *MuF, *MuM, *MSB, *NIS, *NIS, *RobP, *VRiv, *VVP, *Wim. Also naturalized WA, NT, SA, Qld, NSW. Native to North America and the Caribbean. Scattered across northern Victoria from Mildura to Corryong, on river flats, in pastures and irrigated land.

Part of a complex of species sometimes treated together as X. strumarium L.

Source: Jeanes, J.A. (1999). Asteraceae. In: Walsh, N.G.; Entwisle, T.J. (eds), Flora of Victoria Vol. 4, Cornaceae to Asteraceae. Inkata Press, Melbourne.
Updated by: Neville Walsh, 2018-02-15
Hero image
Distribution map
life Life
kingdom Plantae
phylum Tracheophyta
superorder Asteranae
order Asterales
family Asteraceae
genus Xanthium
Higher taxa


Source: AVH (2014). Australia's Virtual Herbarium, Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, <http://avh.chah.org.au>. Find Xanthium occidentale in AVH ; Victorian Biodiversity Atlas, © The State of Victoria, Department of Environment and Primary Industries (published Dec. 2014) Find Xanthium occidentale in Victorian Biodiversity Atlas
  Bioregion Occurrence status Establishment means
Murray Mallee present naturalised
Wimmera present naturalised
Victorian Volcanic Plain present naturalised
Victorian Riverina present naturalised
Murray Scroll Belt present naturalised
Robinvale Plains present naturalised
Murray Fans present naturalised
Goldfields present introduced
Central Victorian Uplands present naturalised
Northern Inland Slopes present naturalised
Northern Inland Slopes present introduced
East Gippsland Uplands present naturalised