Xanthium spinosum L.

Bathurst Burr

Sp. Pl. 987 (1753) APNI

Taxonomic status:Accepted

Occurrence status:Present

Establishment means:Naturalised

Erect, much-branched herb to c. 1 m high; stems pubescent, armed at leaf-bases with 1 or 2, rigid, yellowish 3-fid spines 7–25 mm long. Leaves narrow-rhombic to lanceolate in outline, mostly 3–8 cm long, 8–25 mm wide, simple or 3-lobed, dark green and sparsely pubescent above, silver-felted beneath, apex acute, cuneate at base, margins entire; petiole to c. 1 cm long. Male capitula 2–8, 6–8 mm diam.; involucral bracts ovate to obovate, 1–2 mm long; florets c. as long as involucre, rusty-pubescent. Female capitula usually solitary in axils below males; fruiting involucre ellipsoid to ovoid, 4–5 mm diam., 8–15 mm long, hooked spines 2–3 mm long, pubescent, brown; beaks broad-based, 1–2 mm long, straight. Cypselas c. 1 cm long. Flowers mainly summer.

*CVU, *DunT, *EGL, *EGU, *GipP, *Glep, *Gold, *HNF, *HSF, *LoM, *MonT, *MuF, *MuM, *NIS, *OtP, *RobP, *SnM, *VRiv, *VVP, *WaP, *Wim. Also naturalised WA, NT, SA, Qld, NSW, ACT, Tas., New Zealand. Native to South America but widely naturalized. Widespread in Victoria, mainly in the west and north, often in agricultural land, pastures and roadsides and particularly prolific after flooding or high summer rainfall. Declared a noxious weed in all States. .

Source: Jeanes, J.A. (1999). Asteraceae. In: Walsh, N.G.; Entwisle, T.J. (eds), Flora of Victoria Vol. 4, Cornaceae to Asteraceae. Inkata Press, Melbourne.
Hero image
Distribution map
life Life
kingdom Plantae
phylum Tracheophyta
superorder Asteranae
order Asterales
family Asteraceae
genus Xanthium
Higher taxa


Source: AVH (2014). Australia's Virtual Herbarium, Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, <http://avh.chah.org.au>. Find Xanthium spinosum in AVH ; Victorian Biodiversity Atlas, © The State of Victoria, Department of Environment and Primary Industries (published Dec. 2014) Find Xanthium spinosum in Victorian Biodiversity Atlas
  Bioregion Occurrence status Establishment means
Lowan Mallee present naturalised
Murray Mallee present naturalised
Wimmera present naturalised
Glenelg Plain present naturalised
Victorian Volcanic Plain present naturalised
Victorian Riverina present naturalised
Robinvale Plains present naturalised
Murray Fans present naturalised
Gippsland Plain present naturalised
Otway Plain present naturalised
Warrnambool Plain present naturalised
Goldfields present naturalised
Central Victorian Uplands present naturalised
Dundas Tablelands present naturalised
Northern Inland Slopes present naturalised
East Gippsland Lowlands present naturalised
East Gippsland Uplands present naturalised
Highlands-Southern Fall present naturalised
Highlands-Northern Fall present naturalised
Monaro Tablelands present naturalised
Snowy Mountains present naturalised

State distribution

Distribution map
Western Australia
Northern Territory
South Australia
New South Wales
Australian Capital Territory