Ulmus procera Salisb.

English Elm

Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 391 (1796) APNI

Taxonomic status:Accepted

Occurrence status:Present

Establishment means:Sparingly established

Tree to 40 m tall, crown broadly columnar, trunk extending well into the crown; suckers present. Leaves broadly ovate to broadly obovate, 4–9 cm long, undulate; upper surface dull, dark green, scabrous; apex abruptly acuminate; base oblique, cordate on one side; margins shallowly double-serrate; veins 10–13; petiole 5–10 mm long; stipules narrow triangular, ovate or obovate, 6–18 mm long. Fruit a ± flat, orbicular samara, 10–17 mm wide, broadly winged. Flowers winter–spring.

*CVU, *GipP, *Gold, *HSF, *NIS, *VVP. Native to Europe, grown as an ornamental, naturalised in Victoria. Seeds are usually sterile, most populations are formed by suckering plants growing from nearby parent trees.

Morphologically similar to Ulmus ×hollandica, but distinguished by its generally smaller, round leaves, hairy stems, and columnar canopy shape. Many plants grown in Melbourne are possibly hybrids between U. procera and U. minor Miller making satisfactory determinations difficult (Spencer 1997). Furthermore, most naturalised populations of U. procera and Ulmus ×hollandica consist of suckering plants. Care needs to be taken when identifying suckering material, as leaves tend to become atypical on suckering, young or epicormic shoots. Leaf material taken from the crown is usually required to adequately identify these two species.     

Created by: Andre Messina, 2015-02-23
Updated by: Val Stajsic, 2020-01-09

Spencer, R.D. (1997). Horticultural flora of south-eastern Australia: Dicotyledons part 3, UNSW Press.

Hero image
Distribution map
life Life
kingdom Plantae
phylum Tracheophyta
superorder Rosanae
order Rosales
family Ulmaceae
genus Ulmus
Higher taxa


Source: AVH (2014). Australia's Virtual Herbarium, Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, <http://avh.chah.org.au>. Find Ulmus procera in AVH ; Victorian Biodiversity Atlas, © The State of Victoria, Department of Environment and Primary Industries (published Dec. 2014) Find Ulmus procera in Victorian Biodiversity Atlas
  Bioregion Occurrence status Establishment means
Victorian Volcanic Plain present introduced
Gippsland Plain present introduced
Goldfields present introduced
Central Victorian Uplands present introduced
Northern Inland Slopes present introduced
Highlands-Southern Fall present introduced

State distribution

Distribution map
South Australia
New South Wales
Australian Capital Territory