Taxonomic status:Accepted

Occurrence status:Present

Establishment means:Introduced

Annual, strongly taprooted, prostrate to weakly erect monoecious herbs. Leaves alternate, petiolate, not articulate, entire; ochreas short, tubular, truncate, brown, membranous, glabrous, soon disintegrating. Male flowers clustered, shortly pedicellate, in short, loose axillary and/or terminal panicles; perianth segments sepaloid, 5 or 6, free, virtually equal; stamens 4–6; female flowers sessile or subsessile in axillary clusters; perianth segments 6, fused in lower part, the outer 3 spinescent, becoming hard, thickened and recurved in fruit, the inner 3 remaining erect, closing over the nut; stigmas 3, flattened, fringed. Nut trigonous to triquetrous, remaining within the enlarged fruiting perianth.

2 species, from the Mediterranean region and southern Africa, both naturalised in Australia.

Sometimes included in an expanded Rumex (e.g. Schuster et al. 2015).

Source: Walsh, N.G. (1996). Polygonaceae. In: Walsh, N.G.; Entwisle, T.J. (eds), Flora of Victoria Vol. 3, Dicotyledons Winteraceae to Myrtaceae. Inkata Press, Melbourne.
Updated by: Val Stajsic, 2018-07-24

Schuster, T.M.; Reveal, J.L.; Bayly, M.J. & Kron, K.A. (2015). An updated molecular phylogeny of Polygonoideae (Polygonaceae): Relationships of Oxygonum, Pteroxygonum, and Rumex, and a new circumscription of Koenigia., Taxon 64(6): 1188-1208.

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life Life
kingdom Plantae
phylum Tracheophyta
superorder Caryophyllanae
family Polygonaceae
Higher taxa
genus Emex
Subordinate taxa