Euphorbia paralias L.

Sea Spurge

Sp. Pl. 458 (1753) APNI

Taxonomic status:Accepted

Occurrence status:Present

Establishment means:Naturalised

Erect perennial herb to c. 70 cm high, fleshy, glabrous, more or less glaucous; stems 1–9, each with 3–5 terminal fertile branches which are further branched. Cauline leaves sessile, crowded, imbricate, obovate-oblong to ovate, 5–25 mm long, 2–5 mm wide, fleshy, apex acute to obtuse, base obtuse to slightly cordate, margins entire; leaves on fertile branches suborbicular to rhombic or reniform, to 20 mm long, 15 mm wide, concave above. Cyathia solitary, in upper forks or terminal; peduncles to c. 0.5 mm long; involucre campanulate, c. 1.5 mm long; glands lunate, to c. 1 mm long, emarginate, with 2 short divaricate horn-like appendages; female flowers with styles divided into 2 short stigmas. Capsule depressed-globose, 3–5 mm long, 4.5–6 mm wide, deeply furrowed, wrinkled on keels; seeds ovoid-globose, 2.5–3.5 mm long, smooth, whitish, caruncle reniform, very small. Flowers Sep.–May.

*Brid, *EGL, *GipP, *HSF, *OtP, *OtR, *Strz, *WaP, *WPro. Also naturalised WA, SA, NSW, Tas. Native to the Mediterranean, Europe and Siberia. A weed of sandy coastal areas, increasing in abundance and extent alarmingly since c. 1970 at e.g. Portland, Balnarring, Wilsons Promontory.

Source: Jeanes, J.A. (1999). Euphorbiaceae. In: Walsh, N.G.; Entwisle, T.J. (eds), Flora of Victoria Vol. 4, Cornaceae to Asteraceae. Inkata Press, Melbourne.
Updated by: Val Stajsic, 2018-06-18
Hero image
Distribution map
life Life
kingdom Plantae
phylum Tracheophyta
superorder Rosanae
order Malpighiales
family Euphorbiaceae
genus Euphorbia
Higher taxa


Source: AVH (2014). Australia's Virtual Herbarium, Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, <>. Find Euphorbia paralias in AVH ; Victorian Biodiversity Atlas, © The State of Victoria, Department of Environment and Primary Industries (published Dec. 2014) Find Euphorbia paralias in Victorian Biodiversity Atlas
  Bioregion Occurrence status Establishment means
Bridgewater present naturalised
Gippsland Plain present naturalised
Otway Plain present naturalised
Warrnambool Plain present naturalised
East Gippsland Lowlands present naturalised
Wilsons Promontory present naturalised
Highlands-Southern Fall present naturalised
Otway Ranges present naturalised
Strzelecki Ranges present naturalised

State distribution

Distribution map
Western Australia
South Australia
New South Wales