Salix nigra Marshall

Black Willow

Arbust. Amer. 139 (1785) APNI

Taxonomic status:Accepted

Occurrence status:Present

Establishment means:Naturalised

Large spreading shrub or tree to c. 20 m high or more; trunks 1-several; bark dark brown or blackish-brown, scaly and ultimately deeply fissured; twigs very slender, glabrous, dark reddish-brown, lustrous, moderately brittle at junction; buds glabrous, red-brown, lustrous. Leaves narrow-lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 4–10 cm long, 0.7–1.7 cm wide, thin-textured, dark green and lustrous above, paler green and dull beneath, soon more or less glabrous; apex long-acuminate; base rounded or cuneate; margins regularly minutely glandular-serrate; stipules (on material seen) minute, auriculate, with glandular swellings, caducous. Male and female plants present; catkins on leafy lateral shoots, cylindric, 5.5–9 cm long; males c. 1.2 cm wide (females not seen at anthesis); flowers widely spaced; catkin scales 2.5–3.5 mm long; stamens 5(–6), male flowers very fragrant; ovary stalked, glabrous; capsules 4.5–5.5 mm long.

*GipP, *NIS, *VRiv. Also naturalised Qld, NSW. Indigenous in east and central North America. Flowers Sep.-Nov.

Introduced for stream stabilization in the 1960s and now abundantly recruiting by seed in the catchments of the Kiewa, Ovens, Deddick and Avon Rivers; probably also reproducing vegetatively. Likely to hybridize with other taxa in the subgenus Salix.

Source: Carr, G.W. (1996). Salix. In: Walsh, N.G.; Entwisle, T.J. (eds), Flora of Victoria Vol. 3, Dicotyledons Winteraceae to Myrtaceae. Inkata Press, Melbourne.
Updated by: Val Stajsic, 2018-03-20
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Distribution map
life Life
kingdom Plantae
phylum Tracheophyta
superorder Rosanae
order Malpighiales
family Salicaceae
genus Salix
Higher taxa


Source: AVH (2014). Australia's Virtual Herbarium, Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, <>. Find Salix nigra in AVH ; Victorian Biodiversity Atlas, © The State of Victoria, Department of Environment and Primary Industries (published Dec. 2014) Find Salix nigra in Victorian Biodiversity Atlas
  Bioregion Occurrence status Establishment means
Victorian Riverina present naturalised
Gippsland Plain present naturalised
Northern Inland Slopes present naturalised

State distribution

Distribution map
South Australia
New South Wales
Australian Capital Territory