Viola betonicifolia subsp. novaguineensis D.M.Moore

Feddes Repert. 68: 82 (1963) APNI

Taxonomic status:Accepted

Occurrence status:Present

Establishment means:Native

Threat status:Victoria: rare (r)

Extensively rhizomatous perennial, but rosettes often remote from each other. Leaves mostly stiffly erect; lamina elongate-triangular, 40–90 mm long, 10–35(–70) mm wide, lateral margins straight or slightly concave, base truncate, often hastate; petiole (5–)10–20(–30) cm long, prominently winged from near midway. Flower-scapes mostly exceeding leaves, rarely to only half as long. (See species description for full account). Flowers Sep.–Feb.

EGU, GipP, Glep, HNF, HSF, MuF, VAlp, VRiv. Confined largely to forests fringing the Murray River and its major tributaries, particularly between Wodonga and Echuca, but with scattered occurrences in the south (e.g. Yarra River flats; rocky banks of the Snowy River, where locally common in pockets of sand amongst boulders).

Occasionally grown for ornament and readily self-establishing in gardens. Flowers of this subspecies are generally larger than those of V. betonicifolia subsp. betonicifolia, but there doesn't appear to be a clear distinction between the two in this character. While most flowers are on scapes that exceed the leaves, some may be produced near the base of the plant. These are likely cleistogamous flowers and tend to be produced toward the end of the flowering season.

Created by: Neville Walsh, 2015-04-10
Hero image
Distribution map
life Life
kingdom Plantae
phylum Tracheophyta
superorder Rosanae
order Malpighiales
family Violaceae
genus Viola
Higher taxa


Source: AVH (2014). Australia's Virtual Herbarium, Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, <>. Find Viola betonicifolia subsp. novaguineensis in AVH ; Victorian Biodiversity Atlas, © The State of Victoria, Department of Environment and Primary Industries (published Dec. 2014) Find Viola betonicifolia subsp. novaguineensis in Victorian Biodiversity Atlas
  Bioregion Occurrence status Establishment means
Glenelg Plain present native
Victorian Riverina present native
Murray Fans present native
Gippsland Plain present native
East Gippsland Uplands present native
Highlands-Southern Fall present native
Highlands-Northern Fall present native
Victorian Alps present native

State distribution

Distribution map
New South Wales