Celtis occidentalis L.

North American Hackberry

Sp. Pl. 2: 1044 (1753) APNI

Taxonomic status:Accepted

Occurrence status:Present

Establishment means:Sparingly established

Shrub or broad-crowned tree to c. 20 m high. Bark rough, fissured, often with corky ridges, grey. Leaves obliquely ovate, mostly 5-15 cm long, usually more than half as wide as long; apex abruptly acuminate; base rounded to truncate or shallowly cordate; margins serrate or bi-serrate, usually entire below widest part of leaf; upper surface with scattered tubercle-based hairs, or glabrous with tubercles only; lower surface pilose along veins and veinlets only, rarely glabrous; main lateral veins more or less straight; petiole 1-2 cm long. Perianth lobes 5 or 6, free, obovate to ovate, entire or irregularly toothed near apex, membranous, 2.5-3.5 mm long. Male flowers in few-flowered clusters in lower axils of inflorescence, anthers c. 2 mm long, wtih short, but distinct filaments. Bisexual flowers solitary in upper axils; paired stigmatic lobes 3-4 mm long, ascending to spreading. Drupe globose, c. 8 mm diam., maturing from green through orange to deep reddish-purple; fruiting pedicel to 2 cm long. Flowers early spring; fruits ripen late summer to autumn.

*GipP. Also naturalised Qld, NSW, ACT. Native to North America.

 Grown for ornament. Weakly naturalised on Yarra River flats near Heidelberg.

Created by: Neville Walsh, 2015-02-05
Updated by: Val Stajsic, 2018-10-25
Distribution map
life Life
kingdom Plantae
phylum Tracheophyta
superorder Rosanae
order Rosales
family Cannabaceae
genus Celtis
Higher taxa


Source: AVH (2014). Australia's Virtual Herbarium, Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, <http://avh.chah.org.au>. Find Celtis occidentalis in AVH ; Victorian Biodiversity Atlas, © The State of Victoria, Department of Environment and Primary Industries (published Dec. 2014) Find Celtis occidentalis in Victorian Biodiversity Atlas
  Bioregion Occurrence status Establishment means
Gippsland Plain present introduced

State distribution

Distribution map
South Australia
New South Wales
Australian Capital Territory