Fl. Angl. 348 (1762) APNI
Rhizome tough, ± long, usually c. 3–4 mm diam.; shoots ± loosely tufted. Culms erect, trigonous, scabrous above, (15–)25–90 cm long, to 1.5 mm diam. Leaves shorter than culms, 1.5–3 mm wide; sheath pale grey-brown, usually persisting as fibrous remains; ligule obtuse to rounded. Inflorescence erect, 1–3 cm long, with 3–10 spikes solitary at nodes; lowest involucral bract shorter than to exceeding inflorescence. Spikes sessile, contiguous, spreading to erect at maturity, 0.3–1.3 cm long; upper spikes with male flowers above female flowers; lower spikes entirely female or occasionally with male flowers above; glumes acute to acuminate, often shortly mucronate, pale to orange-brown, with narrow to broad, hyaline margins; female glumes 3.5–5 mm long. Utricles 3.5–4 mm long, 1.8–2.4 mm diam., broad-ellipsoid to ovoid, prominently nerved (in Victorian plants) (numerous nerves abaxially, fewer adaxially), slightly hispid on margins and beak, pale to dark brown; beak 0.5–0.8 mm long, with apex bifid or slightly split abaxially; style 2-fid. Nut broad-ellipsoid to ovoid, lenticular, dark yellow-brown. Flowers spring.
*GipP, *Glep, *Gold, *Strz, *VAlp, *VRiv, *VVP, *WaP. Also introduced in WA, SA, Tas. Native to Europe. Naturalised in New Zealand. Naturalised along creek flats and lakes and dams in the Ballarat, Bendigo, Castlemaine, Murchison, Portland, and Talbot districts, Melbourne suburbs (Altona, Mordialloc, Sunbury) and recorded once at Yarra Glen. Often in slightly brackish situations; deliberately introduced in some areas for stabilization of stream banks but soon invasive into pasture, and in indigenous riparian vegetation. It often forms large dense swards at exclusion of other species, and is a serious environmental and agricultural weed.
The utricles in the Victorian plants are prominently nerved. However, it appears that outside Victoria this character may be variable. Curtis & Morris (1994) note that the utricles in Tasmanian plants are faintly nerved. In the account of the genus for the Flora of North America North of Mexico, Ball & Reznicek (2002) note that the utricles are faintly to prominently nerved.
Ball, P.W. & Reznicek, A.A. (2002). , 254-572, in: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds, Flora of North America North of Mexico, Volume 23: Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Cyperaceae, Oxford University Press, New York.
Curtis, W.M. & Morris, D.I. (1994). The Student's Flora of Tasmania, Part 4B: : Angiospermae: Alismataceae to Burmanniaceae, St. David's Park Publishing, Hobart, Tasmania.
|Bioregion||Occurrence status||Establishment means|
|Victorian Volcanic Plain||present||naturalised|
|Australian Capital Territory|