Taxonomic status:Accepted

Occurrence status:Present

Establishment means:Introduced

Deciduous trees or shrubs, monoecious; bark dark brown to chalky white, smooth. Buds sessile, with several imbricate scales. Leaves ovate to deltoid, or elliptic to suborbicular, serrate, rarely lobed, often glandular on lower surface. Male flowers produced in autumn, in crowded pendulous catkins with numerous overlapping bracts, each bract subtending 3 flowers; perianth of 2–4 scale-like sepals; stamens (1–)2–3(–4). Female flowers produced below male catkins, in crowded, erect catkins, with numerous bracts, each subtending (1–)3 flowers; carpels 2. Fruit a 2-winged samara.  

About 60 species from the Northern Hemisphere; 1 or 2 species sparingly established in Victoria.

Identification to species level in this genus can be complicated, several commonly grown species are highly variable, and hybridisation is known to occur in both cultivated and wild plants.

Created by: Andre Messina, 2015-03-10
Updated by: Val Stajsic, 2019-08-02
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life Life
kingdom Plantae
phylum Tracheophyta
superorder Rosanae
order Fagales
family Betulaceae
Higher taxa
genus Betula
Subordinate taxa