Phleum pratense L.

Timothy Grass

Sp. Pl. 59 (1753) APNI

Taxonomic status:Accepted

Occurrence status:Present

Establishment means:Naturalised

Tufted perennial, culms erect, basal internodes often bulbous, to 1.5 m high. Leaves glabrous, finely scabrous; blade narrowly pointed, to 20 cm long and 8 mm wide; ligule obtuse, 1.5–5 mm long. Inflorescence a cylindric panicle, 4–15 cm long, 5–10 mm wide; glumes oblong, 3–4 mm long (excluding awns), with a row of coarse, erect bristles along the thickened keel, awns rigid, 1–2 mm long, erect to slightly recurved, lower glume ciliate along margin; lemma 5-nerved, shallowly toothed at apex, 2–3 mm long, minutely pubescent; palea 2-nerved, slightly shorter than lemma. Flowers Jan.–Mar.

*EGL, *EGU, *GipP, *Glep, *Gold, *HNF, *HSF, *SnM, *Strz, *VAlp, *VVP, *WaP. Also naturalised WA, SA, NSW, ACT, Tas. Native to northern Africa, temperate Asia, parts of tropical Asia (India, Pakistan), and Europe. Principally a pasture grass in cooler localities, occasionally becoming established on disturbed ground nearby. Planted as a soil stabiliser on road verges and works areas in the high country and occasionally spreading to damp alpine grasslands, particularly where cattle grazing is prevalent.

Source: Walsh, N.G. (1994). Poaceae. In: Walsh, N.G.; Entwisle, T.J. (eds), Flora of Victoria Vol. 2, Ferns and Allied Plants, Conifers and Monocotyledons. Inkata Press, Melbourne.
Updated by: Val Stajsic, 2019-04-17
Hero image
Distribution map
life Life
kingdom Plantae
phylum Tracheophyta
superorder Lilianae
order Poales
family Poaceae
genus Phleum
Higher taxa


Source: AVH (2014). Australia's Virtual Herbarium, Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, <>. Find Phleum pratense in AVH ; Victorian Biodiversity Atlas, © The State of Victoria, Department of Environment and Primary Industries (published Dec. 2014) Find Phleum pratense in Victorian Biodiversity Atlas
  Bioregion Occurrence status Establishment means
Glenelg Plain present naturalised
Victorian Volcanic Plain present naturalised
Gippsland Plain present naturalised
Warrnambool Plain present introduced
Goldfields present naturalised
East Gippsland Lowlands present introduced
East Gippsland Uplands present introduced
Highlands-Southern Fall present naturalised
Highlands-Northern Fall present naturalised
Strzelecki Ranges present naturalised
Victorian Alps present naturalised
Snowy Mountains present introduced

State distribution

Distribution map
South Australia
New South Wales
Australian Capital Territory