Lolium temulentum L.

Darnel

Sp. Pl. 83 (1753) APNI

Taxonomic status:Accepted

Occurrence status:Extinct

Establishment means:Naturalised

Tufted annual, culms stiffly erect, to 100 cm high. Leaf-blades flat, to 40 cm long and 13 mm wide; ligules to 2.5 mm long; auricles usually well-developed, narrow, often stem-clasping. Spike to 35 cm long; rachis mostly more than 1 mm (to 3 mm) diam. Spikelets 4–10-flowered, 10–26 mm long (excluding awns when present); glume about as long as spikelet; lemma ovate to elliptic, smooth and shining, becoming plump toward maturity.

Apparently an almost obligate weed of cereal and/or flax crops originating as a contaminant of seedlots. Modern seed supplies appear to have largely, if not entirely eliminated the species from cultivation in Victoria, there being no post-1950 specimens of L. temulentum represented in the Melbourne Herbarium. Collected localities include Mildura, Dimboola, Ararate, St Arnaud, Bendigo, Weribee, Benalla, Dookie, Bairnsdale.

The European species Lolium remotum Schrank is a somewhat dubious taxon, differentiated from L. temulentum only by virtue of its more elongate inflorescence, with smaller spikelets (6-15 mm long) separated on the rachis by a distance greater than the length of the spikelets. The species appears to be an obligate weed of flax (Linum) crops and is represented by two collections at MEL, one from Leongatha (undated) and another from Werribee (1941). With the demise of the Australian flax industry (post Second World War), L. remotum appears to have also disappeared from this country.

Two apparently coextensive varieties are recognized.

Source: Walsh, N.G. (1994). Poaceae. In: Walsh, N.G.; Entwisle, T.J. (eds), Flora of Victoria Vol. 2, Ferns and Allied Plants, Conifers and Monocotyledons. Inkata Press, Melbourne.
Updated by: Daniel Ohlsen, 2017-06-14
 
Hero image
Distribution map
life Life
kingdom Plantae
phylum Tracheophyta
superorder Lilianae
order Poales
family Poaceae
genus Lolium
Higher taxa
Subordinate taxa

Victoria

Source: AVH (2014). Australia's Virtual Herbarium, Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, <http://avh.chah.org.au>. Find Lolium temulentum in AVH ; Victorian Biodiversity Atlas, © The State of Victoria, Department of Environment and Primary Industries (published Dec. 2014) Find Lolium temulentum in Victorian Biodiversity Atlas
  Bioregion Occurrence status Establishment means
Murray Mallee extinct naturalised
Wimmera extinct naturalised
Victorian Volcanic Plain extinct naturalised
Victorian Riverina extinct naturalised
Gippsland Plain extinct naturalised
Otway Plain extinct naturalised
Goldfields extinct naturalised
Greater Grampians extinct naturalised
Northern Inland Slopes extinct naturalised
Highlands-Southern Fall extinct naturalised
Otway Ranges extinct naturalised

State distribution

Distribution map
State
Western Australia
Queensland
New South Wales
Victoria