Brassica ×napus L.


Sp. Pl. 666 (1753) APNI

Taxonomic status:Accepted

Occurrence status:Present

Establishment means:Naturalised

Annual or biennial. Taproot robust, often tuberous. Stems erect, to 1.5 m high, herbaceous; basal leaf scars inconspicuous, glabrous. Leaves scarcely fleshy, glaucous; lower leaves petiolate, to 40 cm long, deeply lobed, with a large terminal lobe and smaller lateral ones, sparsely bristly; upper leaves sessile, oblong-lanceolate, the base broadened, clasped around more than half of the stem. Inflorescence with buds overtopping (rarely equalling) the flowers. Sepals inclined, 5–7 mm long; petals 11–14 mm long, pale yellow; outer stamens with filaments curved outwards at base; ovary sessile. Fruit ascending, 4–10 cm long (including beak), 2–4 mm wide, quadrangular (valves flattened between midrib and margin); beak 5–30 mm long, with 0 or 1 seed; pedicel 15–30 mm long; seeds 1–3 mm wide, dark brown to black. Flowers spring.

*MuM, *VVP, *WaP. Naturalised all States except NT. Origin unknown, probably derived from a Brassica oleracea and B. rapa hybrid in Europe. An occasional escape from cultivation in Victoria and possibly naturalised.

Cultivated as a vegetable and for stock fodder. Seedlings used in salads as 'cress', in place of Lepidium sativum.

Source: Entwisle, T.J. (1996). Brassicaceae. In: Walsh, N.G.; Entwisle, T.J. (eds), Flora of Victoria Vol. 3, Dicotyledons Winteraceae to Myrtaceae. Inkata Press, Melbourne.
Updated by: Val Stajsic, 2018-10-01
Distribution map
life Life
kingdom Plantae
phylum Tracheophyta
superorder Rosanae
order Brassicales
family Brassicaceae
genus Brassica
Higher taxa


Source: AVH (2014). Australia's Virtual Herbarium, Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, <>. Find Brassica ×napus in AVH ; Victorian Biodiversity Atlas, © The State of Victoria, Department of Environment and Primary Industries (published Dec. 2014) Find Brassica ×napus in Victorian Biodiversity Atlas
  Bioregion Occurrence status Establishment means
Murray Mallee present introduced
Victorian Volcanic Plain present naturalised
Warrnambool Plain present naturalised