Verbena bonariensis L.

Purple-top Verbena

Sp. Pl. 20 (1753) APNI

Taxonomic status:Accepted

Occurrence status:Present

Establishment means:Introduced

Herb 0.5–2 m high; branches erect, conspicuously quadrangular, scabrous-pubescent or hispidulous especially on angles. Leaves sessile, lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, (3–)5–15(–18) cm long, (0.5–)1–3.5(–5) cm wide, rugose and scabrous above, tomentose below, apex acute, base cordate and sub-auriculate to amplexicaul, margin coarsely incised-serrate, sometimes entire toward base. Inflorescence lax, terminal, corymbose or spike-like. Bracts barely equalling or slightly longer than calyx. Calyx 5- (rarely 4-) toothed, 2.5–3.5 mm long, pubescent-hispidulous on angles outside, glabrous inside, non-glandular; corolla blue, dark-purple, pinkish, lilac or mauve, as long as or twice as long as calyx, tube 3–5(–6) mm long. Mericarps 1–2 mm long.

*CVU, *EGL, *EGU, *GipP, *Glep, *Gold, *HNF, *HSF, *MuF, *MuM, *NIS, *OtP, *OtR, *Strz, *VRiv, *VVP.

2 varieties naturalised in Victoria.

Source: Conn, B.J. (1999). Verbenaceae. In: Walsh, N.G.; Entwisle, T.J. (eds), Flora of Victoria Vol. 4, Cornaceae to Asteraceae. Inkata Press, Melbourne.
Updated by: Val Stajsic, 2019-02-20
Hero image
Distribution map
life Life
kingdom Plantae
phylum Tracheophyta
superorder Asteranae
order Lamiales
family Verbenaceae
genus Verbena
Higher taxa
Subordinate taxa


Source: AVH (2014). Australia's Virtual Herbarium, Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, <>. Find Verbena bonariensis in AVH ; Victorian Biodiversity Atlas, © The State of Victoria, Department of Environment and Primary Industries (published Dec. 2014) Find Verbena bonariensis in Victorian Biodiversity Atlas
  Bioregion Occurrence status Establishment means
Murray Mallee present introduced
Glenelg Plain present naturalised
Victorian Volcanic Plain present naturalised
Victorian Riverina present naturalised
Murray Fans present naturalised
Gippsland Plain present naturalised
Otway Plain present naturalised
Goldfields present naturalised
Central Victorian Uplands present naturalised
Northern Inland Slopes present naturalised
East Gippsland Lowlands present naturalised
East Gippsland Uplands present naturalised
Highlands-Southern Fall present naturalised
Highlands-Northern Fall present naturalised
Otway Ranges present introduced
Strzelecki Ranges present introduced

State distribution

Distribution map
Western Australia
Northern Territory
South Australia
New South Wales
Australian Capital Territory