Caladenia toxochila Tate

Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. South Australia 12: 129 (1889) APNI

Taxonomic status:Accepted

Occurrence status:Present

Establishment means:Native

Threat status:Victoria: vulnerable (v); listed in Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988

Flowering plant 8–20 cm tall. Leaf 5–12 cm long, 10–15 mm wide, sometimes dotted red at base. Flowers 1 or 2; perianth segments 1.2–2.5 cm long, yellowish-green with red stripes, sepals with glandular tips; glands sessile and scattered to moderately crowded; lateral sepals deflexed near ovary, more or less parallel, dilated asymmetrically at base, 2–4 mm wide, tapered to a filiform glandular tip; petals deflexed, similar to sepals but narrower and without glands. Labellum curved forward, flattish to concave in middle region, more or less ovate, 3-lobed, 10–12 mm long, 10–12 mm wide (when flattened), mostly green with a recurved purple mid-lobe; margins entire in basal portion, lateral lobes toothed towards mid-lobe, teeth numerous, linear or oblong to c. 1mm long, mid-lobe crenate to shallowly toothed; lamina calli in 4 congested rows ending at the base of the mid-lobe, club-shaped, fleshy, blackish, c. 1.5 mm long at base of lamina, diminishing in size toward apex. Flowers Aug.–Oct.

LoM, Wim. Also SA. Scattered across the State, from Kiata near Nhill. Apparently confined to western Victoria (e.g. Little Desert, Bealiba, Creswick) in heathy or grassy woodland and mallee scrub on well-drained sandy soil.

Caladenia amoena  differs from C. toxochila in having flowers lighter-coloured, sepals with less prominent glandular tips, and labellum lamina calli thinner, dark reddish (rather than blackish) and only moderately congested.

The closely related New South Wales species, C. concinna differs from C. toxochila in having paler flowers and a more widely flared labellum which is distinctly 3-lobed, and usually has longer marginal teeth (c. 3 mm long) and lamina calli congested in 6 irregular rows.

Source: Entwisle, T.J. (1994). Orchidaceae. In: Walsh, N.G.; Entwisle, T.J. (eds), Flora of Victoria Vol. 2, Ferns and Allied Plants, Conifers and Monocotyledons. Inkata Press, Melbourne.
Updated by: Jeff Jeanes, 2015-05-15
Hero image
Distribution map
life Life
kingdom Plantae
phylum Tracheophyta
superorder Lilianae
order Asparagales
family Orchidaceae
genus Caladenia
Higher taxa


Source: AVH (2014). Australia's Virtual Herbarium, Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, <>. Find Caladenia toxochila in AVH ; Victorian Biodiversity Atlas, © The State of Victoria, Department of Environment and Primary Industries (published Dec. 2014) Find Caladenia toxochila in Victorian Biodiversity Atlas
  Bioregion Occurrence status Establishment means
Lowan Mallee present native
Wimmera present native