Acacia melanoxylon R.Br.


in W.T.Aiton, Hortus Kew., edn 2, 5: 462 (1813) APNI

Taxonomic status:Accepted

Occurrence status:Present

Establishment means:Native

Small to large tree, c. 3–45 m high; branchlets angular, becoming terete, ribbed, minutely scurfy and slightly hairy, or glabrous. Phyllodes inclined to ascending, narrowly elliptic, lanceolate or oblanceolate, 4–16 cm long, 6–25 mm wide, broadest near or above middle, straight to slightly curved, somewhat coriaceous, glabrous, acute to acuminate, commonly callose-apiculate; main veins 3–5, raised, distant, with numerous secondary veins commonly anastamosing. Racemes mostly 3–5-headed, rachis 6–40 mm long; peduncles 4.5–13 mm long, scurfy with resin cells and sometimes scattered hairs; heads globular, c. 6 mm diam., 30–56-flowered, pale cream to pale golden. Flowers 5-merous; sepals three-quarters to completely united. Pods linear, to 15 cm long, 3.5–10 mm wide, coriaceous to woody, twisted, glabrous; seeds longitudinal, broadly elliptic, 3–5 mm long, glossy black; funicle fleshy, pink to deep red, twice-encircling seed loosely. Flowers Aug.–Oct.

Brid, CVU, DunT, EGL, EGU, GipP, Glep, Gold, GGr, HFE, HNF, HSF, LoM, MonT, MuF, MuM, NIS, OtP, OtR, SnM, Strz, VAlp, VRiv, VVP, WaP, WPro, Wim. Also SA, Qld, NSW, Tas. Widespread and often common, growing in a diversity of habitats but favouring fertile soils in valleys and on flats in mountainous areas, often in wet sclerophyll forest and rainforest.

Acacia melanoxylon is one of the most wide-ranging tree species in eastern Australia and considerably variable, particularly in phyllode size and shape in which the variation is continuous (Farrell & Ashton 1978; Playford et al. 1993). It is related closely to A. implexa which differs in phyllode shape and size, the partly united petals, its white, fleshy funicle which forms one loop over the apex of the seed, its glabrous rachis and later flowering time. It is also related to A. frigescens which has more or less pruinose young branchlets, phyllodes that are proportionately longer, partly united petals and the funicle disposed in about three loops over the apex of the seed.

Wood prized for cabinet work and panelling, and for stringed instruments.

Source: Entwisle, T.J.; Maslin, B.R.; Cowan, R.S.; Court, A.B. (1996). Mimosaceae. In: Walsh, N.G.; Entwisle, T.J. (eds), Flora of Victoria Vol. 3, Dicotyledons Winteraceae to Myrtaceae. Inkata Press, Melbourne.
Hero image
Distribution map
life Life
kingdom Plantae
phylum Tracheophyta
superorder Rosanae
order Fabales
family Fabaceae
genus Acacia
Higher taxa


Source: AVH (2014). Australia's Virtual Herbarium, Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, <>. Find Acacia melanoxylon in AVH ; Victorian Biodiversity Atlas, © The State of Victoria, Department of Environment and Primary Industries (published Dec. 2014) Find Acacia melanoxylon in Victorian Biodiversity Atlas
  Bioregion Occurrence status Establishment means
Lowan Mallee present native
Murray Mallee present native
Wimmera present native
Glenelg Plain present native
Bridgewater present native
Victorian Volcanic Plain present native
Victorian Riverina present native
Murray Fans present native
Gippsland Plain present native
Otway Plain present native
Warrnambool Plain present native
Goldfields present native
Central Victorian Uplands present native
Greater Grampians present native
Dundas Tablelands present native
Northern Inland Slopes present native
East Gippsland Lowlands present native
East Gippsland Uplands present native
Wilsons Promontory present native
Highlands-Southern Fall present native
Highlands-Northern Fall present native
Otway Ranges present native
Strzelecki Ranges present native
Monaro Tablelands present native
Highlands-Far East present native
Victorian Alps present native
Snowy Mountains present native

State distribution

Distribution map
Western Australia
South Australia
New South Wales
Australian Capital Territory